Accounting systems that go beyond economic metrics alone and integrate societal, economic and environmental information to measure and manage progress towards ocean sustainable development are essential. This integration is best achieved by incorporating these three domains into a consistent and standard ocean accounting (OA) framework based on established and novel accounting standards. This publication describes the novel OA framework and its components; highlights its use opportunities, benefits, and challenges; and presents the Systems and Flows Model (SaFM) for OA. The SaFM represents the OA framework as a system of systems, evidencing the various accounting standards it integrates and the flows between them.
Every account counts for sustainable development: lessons from the African CoP to implement ocean accounts in the Western Indian Ocean region
This publication provides practical guidelines to start implementing national, regional or local ocean accounts, following the Technical Guidance on Ocean Accounting.
Using Ocean Accounting towards an integrated assessment of ecosystem services and benefits within a coastal lake
This paper develops an ocean account for Lake Illawarra in New South Wales, Australia, compiling the accounts for the years between 2010 and 2020.